The ENSO phenomenon is one of the key factors that influence the interannual variability of precipitation over Southern South America. We identified the regional response of precipitation to El Niño/La Niña events, with emphasis in drought conditions. We found coherent and significant precipitation responses to ENSO phases at a regional level, with deficits under La Niña conditions. The results provide critical baseline information for the agricultural and water resources sectors.
The geosciences are one of the least diverse disciplines in the United States, despite the field's relevance to people's livelihoods and economies. Bias, discrimination and harassment present serious hurdles to diversifying the field. We summarize research on the factors that contribute to the persistence of hostile climates in the geosciences and other scientific disciplines and provide recommendations for cultural change through the role of mentoring networks and professional associations.