Fracture networks are often self-similar and are defined by a fractal dimension. However, two such networks with the same fractal dimension may have subtle differences in their clustering attributes that lead to distinct connectivity and flow behavior. This research shows that rather than the fractal dimension, lacunarity, a parameter quantifying scale-dependent clustering, is a better proxy for fracture connectivity as well as flow responses and, is relatively easy to compute than connectivity.
Fumarolic fields with near-surface temperature <100°C are very common features of volcanoes. Their space/time variability is controlled by hydro-meteorological conditions, vapor flow and permeability, reflecting changes of volcanic activity. Since the thermal monitoring of these fumaroles is a low cost, up-to-date technique, it has been successfully applied in volcanic surveillance programs of Italian active volcanoes, giving useful insights on the evolution of their activity state.
Storm Xaver in December 2013 had a high gust field that caused transportation and energy infrastructure impacts in northern Europe. There was a strong storm surge across the North Sea basin that was higher than the 1 Feb 1953 surge in certain places. For some stations in the UK and Denmark, water levels exceeded the 1000 year return period level. Similar to previous winter storms, there is an indication of large waves in coastal areas with potential impacts on offshore energy infrastructure.
Camilla Rossi, Francesco Grigoli, Simone Cesca, Sebastian Heimann, Paolo Gasperini, Vala Hjörleifsdóttir, Torsten Dahm, Christopher J. Bean, Stefan Wiemer, Luca Scarabello, Nima Nooshiri, John F. Clinton, Anne Obermann, Kristján Ágústsson, and Thorbjörg Ágústsdóttir
We investigate the microseismicity occurred at Hengill area, a complex tectonic and geothermal site, where the origin of earthquakes may be either natural or anthropogenic. We use a very dense broadband seismic monitoring network and apply full-waveform based method for location. Our results and first characterization identified different types of microseismic clusters, which might be associated to either production/injection or the tectonic activity of the geothermal area.
In this paper the main results of the regional program Rad Campania for the monitoring and the assessment of the radon risk are analyzed. An analysis of all data collected is presented in order to improve the radon reserach field and enrich the scientific literature of important results and new methodologies to be applied and extended in other similar cases.
We studied the subsoil structure of the Campi Flegrei area using both spectral ratios and array techniques (f-k and MSPAC) applied to seismic noise recorded by three different array. By means of joint inversion of dispersion curve and spectral ratio we obtained a Vs model, that is in a good agreement with the stratigraphic information available in the area. In areas such as Campi Flegrei the definition of the velocity model is a crucial issue to characterize the physical parameters of the medium
In this work we describe the integrated application of 3D diagnostic methods, i.e. Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS), close range photogrammetry (CRP) and ultrasonic tomography supported by petrographic investigations. They were used to implement the diagnostic process of the conservation state of a column of a colonnade in the ancient church of Saints Lorenzo and Pancratio, dating to about the second half of the thirteenth century and located in the old town of Cagliari (Italy).
The UNEXUP project aims to improve, test, and commercialize the robotic technology developed within the UNEXMIN project, which is already equipped with enough navigation and geoscientific instrumentation to perform exploration missions in flooded mines. The UNEXUP robot-based service intends to address the needs and requirements from mining companies, geological surveys and other sectors that can benefit this technology.
Spectral analysis has been applied to seismic events recorded at Vesuvius volcano to test a new tool for a fast event classification. We computed two spectral parameters, central frequency and shape factor from the spectral moments. The results show that volcano-tectonic earthquakes and low frequency events are distinguishable though the spectral moments. Since the computation of spectral parameters is easy and fast, it may become an effective tool for classification in observatory practice.
The ROBOMINERS project develops an innovative technology for the future exploitation of small and difficult to access mineral deposits. A bioinspired robotic miner prototype, able to navigate, explore and mine under several work conditions, makes the exploration of many mineral deposits economically feasible, while reducing social and environmental impacts associated with conventional mining methods. A new mining system tailored to this new technology line is also under development.
We compute gravity field solutions from kinematic orbit positions of GRACE. These positions are derived from GPS based observations, and hence, they are contaminated by measurement noise. We present three methods of dealing with the noise in the data to obtain not only high-quality gravity field solutions but also an accurate quality information of the gravity fields.
Understanding and predicting of subsurface geophysical and geotechnical processes, such as hydrothermal flows and oil and gas production, is limited by the fact that such processes cannot be directly observed. Limited monitoring can often be done only through surface observations including gravimetry and ground uplift or subsidence. The article describes the software that allows to constrain subsurface parameters by the observations at surface.
In this study, we apply the Genetic Algorithm technique that mimics the natural selection process observed in nature to design optimal layouts for massive wind farms off the southeastern coast of India using real wind data. Our results show that layout optimization leads to large improvements in power generation (up to 28 %), efficiency (up to 34 %), and cost (up to 25 %) due to the reduction in wake losses.
The TRANsport Simulation Environment (TRANSE) has been developed to improve the flexibility for coupling chemical libraries with fluid flow and the transport of heat and chemical species. The Python-based implementation of TRANSE enables users not experienced in low-level programming languages (e.g., C, C++ or FORTRAN) to undertake required code modifications and integrate chemical modules as required. TRANSE has been successfully verified against benchmarks on density-driven fluid flow.
This study endeavours to improve marine spatial planning abilities and the productivity of potential offshore renewable energy developments by creating a unique geological dataset that can be incorporated into common GIS assessments. To accomplish this, a dataset of 1,858 new and existing points is compiled and used to build a series of gridded outputs. The final model reveals areas of probable seabed stability that could provide useful information to future planning activities.
Selecting suitable configurations is a key step for Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) surveys. The paper proposes two selection criteria which have been tested on numerical resistivity models, developed for a CO2 injection experiment at the Svelvik CO2 field lab in Norway. After the CO2 injection took place schedule performance is revalued using revised reservoir models. The study shows opportunities and challenges associated with small scale CO2 injection monitoring using ERT.
We interviewed 12 female students to examine their experiences in geosciences at the male-dominated Universidad de Chile. The experience moved from negative to positive in the transition from the early years of college, during which they experienced gender-based discrimination, to the geoscience major within which the presence of more women improved the environment. We discuss some strategies to increase the satisfaction of female students in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM).
A circular city is built upon the principles of circular economy, which key concepts are reduce, reuse, recycle, and recover. However, the sources, types and available quantities of insufficiently used resources in cities are currently not well documented. A site resource inventory of infrastructural and building-specific parameters has the potential to enhance the circular city’s information flow and thus support both companies in their site decisions and municipalities in the planning process.
In order to better understand both the fixation and migration of gases in evaporites, investigations were performed in five horizontal boreholes drilled in an underground potash seam.
According to the He-isotopes, a small contribution of mantle gas can be found in the geogenic salt gas. We assume that CO2 and CH4 are related to volcanic activity, where they isotopically equilibrated at temperatures of 513 °C to 519 °C about 15 to 16 Ma ago.
The Solfatara volcano (Italy), is monitored by a thermal infrared camera ground network handled by INGV. The dataset processed in this work consists of daily maximum temperatures time-series from 25 April 2014 to 31 May 2019. After a pre-processing, PSD's were calculated, filtering in [15–120] day band, to check if characteristic periodicities exist. Most of the periodicities are ascribable to ambient factors, while 18.16 and 88.71 days have a possible endogenous origin.
A slow improvement in gender equality has occurred in Japan during the last 45 years. Only 16.7 % of academic staff in national universities were women in 2018. The percentage of female staff remains particularly low in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM), accounting for 12.3 % in agriculture, 8.7 % in science, and 6.2 % in engineering. Japanese statistical data in academic and geoscience fields are described, with a discussion of possible causes such as unconscious bias.
This research focuses on the estimation of the HPAI recovery technique feasibility for the target field. Consequent laboratory-scale experiments and their further numerical modeling were performed. A kinetic model of reactions occurring during combustion was validated against experimental results. Important parameters obtained during the numerical simulation were used for the field upscaling. Four different field-wide development scenarios were considered to maximize oil production.
Thanks to the availability of a portable absolute gravimeter allowing field operations, in 2015 a dense absolute gravity network was established in Campi Flegrei and till 2019 five surveys were carried out. Results suggest that the present activity may be due to the alternating recharge/discharge of fluids in the surface hydrothermal system. They also confirms the feasibility of this methodology for volcano monitoring, and encourage replacing the relative networks with absolute ones.