The wettability of reservoir rock is one of the most critical factors affecting the residual saturation and transport properties. In this work, we investigated the wettability of target rock samples using a nuclear magnetic resonance, vapor adsorption, and wetting contact angle technique. Results provided an initial assessment of rock surface wettability and showed correlations between wettability index, rock lithology, and organic matter morphology for target shale formation.
Correctly determining the orbit of Earth-orbiting satellites requires to account multiple background effects which appear in the system Earth. Usually, these effects are introduced by various complex force models, which are not always easy to handle. We publish and validate a data set of commonly used models to make it easier to track down potential issues when applying such background forces in orbit and gravity field determination.
This study presents a framework for regional smart energy planning for the optimal location and sizing of small hybrid systems. By using an optimization model – in combination with weather data – various local energy systems are simulated using the Calliope and PyPSA energy system simulation tools. The optimization and simulation models are fed with GIS data from different volunteered geographic information projects, including OpenStreetMap.
Energy supply in Germany is subject to a profound change. The present paper addresses the German potential of storing excess energy from renewable power sources in the geological subsurface. Wind and solar electricity can be transformed into hydrogen, and with carbon dioxide subsequently into methane. The current potential for combined subsurface storage of methane and carbon dioxide allows to store far more than required to date and is estimated to provide the entire coverage in 2050.
Utilization of geothermal reservoirs as alternative energy source is becoming increasingly important worldwide. Here, we studied the surface expression of a warm water reservoir in Waiwera, New Zealand, that has been known for many centuries but remained little explored. Using thermal infrared cameras we were able to show renewed activity of the hot springs on the beachfront and identified faults and fractures as important fluid pathways, as well as individual fluid conducting lithologies.
As national regulator within the German siting process, the Federal Office for the Safety of Nuclear Waste Management (BASE) performs own research on, e.g., geo-scientific questions, methodological aspects of the implementation of the site selection process, and public participation aspects. The results support BASE to fulfil its task according to state-of-the-art science and technology, ensure highest safety-level and are also relevant to other stakeholders of the siting process.
Fracture networks are often self-similar and are defined by a fractal dimension. However, two such networks with the same fractal dimension may have subtle differences in their clustering attributes that lead to distinct connectivity and flow behavior. This research shows that rather than the fractal dimension, lacunarity, a parameter quantifying scale-dependent clustering, is a better proxy for fracture connectivity as well as flow responses and, is relatively easy to compute than connectivity.
Fumarolic fields with near-surface temperature <100°C are very common features of volcanoes. Their space/time variability is controlled by hydro-meteorological conditions, vapor flow and permeability, reflecting changes of volcanic activity. Since the thermal monitoring of these fumaroles is a low cost, up-to-date technique, it has been successfully applied in volcanic surveillance programs of Italian active volcanoes, giving useful insights on the evolution of their activity state.
Storm Xaver in December 2013 had a high gust field that caused transportation and energy infrastructure impacts in northern Europe. There was a strong storm surge across the North Sea basin that was higher than the 1 Feb 1953 surge in certain places. For some stations in the UK and Denmark, water levels exceeded the 1000 year return period level. Similar to previous winter storms, there is an indication of large waves in coastal areas with potential impacts on offshore energy infrastructure.
Camilla Rossi, Francesco Grigoli, Simone Cesca, Sebastian Heimann, Paolo Gasperini, Vala Hjörleifsdóttir, Torsten Dahm, Christopher J. Bean, Stefan Wiemer, Luca Scarabello, Nima Nooshiri, John F. Clinton, Anne Obermann, Kristján Ágústsson, and Thorbjörg Ágústsdóttir
We investigate the microseismicity occurred at Hengill area, a complex tectonic and geothermal site, where the origin of earthquakes may be either natural or anthropogenic. We use a very dense broadband seismic monitoring network and apply full-waveform based method for location. Our results and first characterization identified different types of microseismic clusters, which might be associated to either production/injection or the tectonic activity of the geothermal area.
In this paper the main results of the regional program Rad Campania for the monitoring and the assessment of the radon risk are analyzed. An analysis of all data collected is presented in order to improve the radon reserach field and enrich the scientific literature of important results and new methodologies to be applied and extended in other similar cases.
We studied the subsoil structure of the Campi Flegrei area using both spectral ratios and array techniques (f-k and MSPAC) applied to seismic noise recorded by three different array. By means of joint inversion of dispersion curve and spectral ratio we obtained a Vs model, that is in a good agreement with the stratigraphic information available in the area. In areas such as Campi Flegrei the definition of the velocity model is a crucial issue to characterize the physical parameters of the medium
In this work we describe the integrated application of 3D diagnostic methods, i.e. Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS), close range photogrammetry (CRP) and ultrasonic tomography supported by petrographic investigations. They were used to implement the diagnostic process of the conservation state of a column of a colonnade in the ancient church of Saints Lorenzo and Pancratio, dating to about the second half of the thirteenth century and located in the old town of Cagliari (Italy).
The UNEXUP project aims to improve, test, and commercialize the robotic technology developed within the UNEXMIN project, which is already equipped with enough navigation and geoscientific instrumentation to perform exploration missions in flooded mines. The UNEXUP robot-based service intends to address the needs and requirements from mining companies, geological surveys and other sectors that can benefit this technology.
Spectral analysis has been applied to seismic events recorded at Vesuvius volcano to test a new tool for a fast event classification. We computed two spectral parameters, central frequency and shape factor from the spectral moments. The results show that volcano-tectonic earthquakes and low frequency events are distinguishable though the spectral moments. Since the computation of spectral parameters is easy and fast, it may become an effective tool for classification in observatory practice.
The ROBOMINERS project develops an innovative technology for the future exploitation of small and difficult to access mineral deposits. A bioinspired robotic miner prototype, able to navigate, explore and mine under several work conditions, makes the exploration of many mineral deposits economically feasible, while reducing social and environmental impacts associated with conventional mining methods. A new mining system tailored to this new technology line is also under development.
We compute gravity field solutions from kinematic orbit positions of GRACE. These positions are derived from GPS based observations, and hence, they are contaminated by measurement noise. We present three methods of dealing with the noise in the data to obtain not only high-quality gravity field solutions but also an accurate quality information of the gravity fields.
Understanding and predicting of subsurface geophysical and geotechnical processes, such as hydrothermal flows and oil and gas production, is limited by the fact that such processes cannot be directly observed. Limited monitoring can often be done only through surface observations including gravimetry and ground uplift or subsidence. The article describes the software that allows to constrain subsurface parameters by the observations at surface.
In this study, we apply the Genetic Algorithm technique that mimics the natural selection process observed in nature to design optimal layouts for massive wind farms off the southeastern coast of India using real wind data. Our results show that layout optimization leads to large improvements in power generation (up to 28 %), efficiency (up to 34 %), and cost (up to 25 %) due to the reduction in wake losses.
The TRANsport Simulation Environment (TRANSE) has been developed to improve the flexibility for coupling chemical libraries with fluid flow and the transport of heat and chemical species. The Python-based implementation of TRANSE enables users not experienced in low-level programming languages (e.g., C, C++ or FORTRAN) to undertake required code modifications and integrate chemical modules as required. TRANSE has been successfully verified against benchmarks on density-driven fluid flow.